Friday, May 22, 2020

Questions On Ethics And Ethics Essay - 1454 Words

Main Title: Introduction to Ethics Paper 2 Hamza Ennouri Group 2 Mediterranean School of Business 04/29/2016 15-246-0204 Introduction to Ethics: Paper 2 Ethics, which is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending and recommending concepts of the right and wrong conduct, investigates the questions What is the best way for people to live and What actions are right or wrong in particular Circumstances.† There are different theories of ethics such as metha-physics, normative-ethics and applied ethics. I will be judging two situations from box A and box B from a perspective of one of these theories. I have chosen the situations A3 and B1. Situation A3: Max has not paid attention to statistics during the winter exam. He asks his friend, Yuko, who is a very good student, to help him during the exam by sitting next to him and passing answers. The special thing about this situation is the fact that we can judge it based on both sides that are moved by factor 1 who is Max and factor 2 who is Yuko, the friend who wants to help, which is a thing that Max was sure of, since he asks for help. Max has not paid attention to the winter exam so he is in a dangerous position and the results can change the way his life was going. This made him take a decision. We can judge this situation in the context of decision making, and also from the angle of what moral standards Max has. Let’s begin with the moral standards. I can conclude that Max believes that he has toShow MoreRelatedQuestions On Ethics And Ethics930 Words   |  4 PagesIssue â€Å"It might be impossible for Harvard to teach ethics,† was what Chuck Colson, a former lawyer, a politician and devout Christian, noted after discovering reports on one of the school’s ethics classes. A businessman who had taken an ethics class at Harvard University, described it as â€Å"practical pointers.† However, Mr. Colson argued, in an article, that Harvard’s philosophical relativism makes it impossible for them to teach â€Å"real ethics.† Upon discovering this article, Harvard Business schoolRead MoreThe Question Of Ethics And Ethics1394 Words   |  6 PagesWhat exactly does the term â€Å"ethics† mean? When asking this question among several different groups of people, I’m sure all of their answers would be different in many ways, but would all draw the general theme that ethics is somewhat of a study of what is right and what is wrong. This is a mostly correct conclusion, except for the fact that it encompasses not on ly determining what is right and wrong, but attempting to systemize and defend those ethical positions which one holds. Almost all of theRead MoreQuestions On Ethics And Ethics908 Words   |  4 PagesEthics basically deals with what is right versus what is wrong. As human beings we face the task of making ethical decisions every day. Some decisions are easier than others to make; however, it is important to make the right decision because every decision has consequences good or bad. The bible tells us in Proverbs 21:2-3 that, â€Å"Every way of a man is right in his own eyes, but the Lord weighs the hearts. To do righteousness and justice is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice† (NIV). OurRead MoreQuestions On Ethics And Ethics Essay770 Words   |  4 PagesEthic in Negotiation The dictionary definition of ethics is: a system of moral principles or values; the rules or standards governing the conduct of the members of a profession; accepted principles of right or wrong. Ethics create the means of doing what is right, fair and honest. 1 According to Mark Pastin, an ethics thought leader and ethics consultant, â€Å"You need to recognize the interests involved in an ethical situation and know how to navigate them†. He also imply, in order to create a visionRead MoreQuestions On Ethics And Ethics Essay800 Words   |  4 Pages 1.8.1 Ethics Practices Ethics or ethical practices are pertaining to or dealing with morals or the principles of morality. 1.8.2 Unethical practices Lacking moral principles or unwilling to adhere to proper rules of conduct. 1.8.3 Forms of Unethical Practices 1.8.3.1 Bribery According Black s Law Dictionary, bribery is the offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions of an official or other person in charge of a public or legal duty. 1.8.3.2 CorruptionRead MoreQuestions On Ethics And Ethics1410 Words   |  6 PagesAngela Kopec 02/26/2017 Ethics Paper In tax practice, the ethics environment in which professionals operate is complex. The Treasury Circular 230 governs federal tax practice standards. However, a multitude of standards and ethics rules also apply to a member’s tax practice including the AICPA’s Statements on Standards for Tax Services (SSTSs). The Circular 230 and the SSTSs contain similar content but are different content in some aspects. The lack of cross reference between the Circular 230 andRead MoreQuestions On Business Ethics And Ethics2226 Words   |  9 PagesIntroduction to Business Ethics What Is Ethics? To understand business ethics one must first understand that there is no general definition used to define this ethics related topic. Ethics related topics usually include terms such as morals, principles, ethics and values, which are, in most cases, used interchangeably. However, Asgary and Mitschow (2002) defines ethics as the study of appropriate policies and practices regarding possible controversial issues while offering recommendations forRead MoreEthics And The Ethics Based Questions938 Words   |  4 Pageswhile extreme, presents us with a myriad of different ethical dilemmas involving the respect for life. Although we may not face this kind of grave situation on a daily basis the lessons we can learn from this case study can be applied to the ethics based questions we do encounter in everyday life. By examining the choices and intentions of each of the involved individuals we are able to see the application of different arguments and points of view. While the parties in volved differ greatly in theirRead MoreQuestion Questions On Business Ethics1305 Words   |  6 PagesQuestion 1- Business Ethics Issue- A Company has developed a new drug which contains small side effects. They have conducted many experiments on this drug and formed a report to keep confidential. The board of directors results that they will continue to market the drug and keep the information within the company, as it will increase profits significantly. Is this ethical behaviour for the company? Rule- Common law tells us that as the directors of the company it is in their duty to act in goodRead MoreEthics, Ethics And Morals Of The User Into Question3486 Words   |  14 PagesINTRODUCTION Morals and ethics question us in everyday life. We are constantly facing new dilemmas that put us in difficult situations; and thinking of them in depth will make us question our loyalty towards a particular matter. Graphic Designers face those obligations relatively more than other people. The nature of their job is to create pieces of work, and these may be those that as an individual, they do not solely agree with but have an obligation to complete it in order to keep the client

Friday, May 8, 2020

An Intrusive Advisement Plan For First Generation...

The policy I propose is an intrusive advisement plan for first-generation undeclared freshmen called The â€Å"College and Career Explorer Program.† The policy incorporates three important components of well-developed policy, including a clear purpose, a clearly defined plan, and a plan for consistent implementation. The policy includes a detailed mission, a definition of whom exactly the policy serves, and the steps to take to make sure it is implemented successfully. In this particular case, there are guidelines for what the participating advisors are expected to do, such as contacting the students, and a timeline of when contact should take place. A training program to set the program up for success by making appropriate and consistent information available and an evaluation is also included so success can be measured. The policy is formatted based on the University of California, Davis policy template found at http://manuals.ucdavis.edu/resources/GuidetoWritingPolicy.pdf. The policy for the College and Career Explorer program is as follows: I. Purpose The objective of this policy is to provide key assistance to historically underserved students by providing extra guidance in careers exploration, class scheduling, and finding extracurricular activities on campus. Intrusive advisement for students will allow students to have a primary contact person on staff who can help the student navigate through university offices and procedures to help ensure a positive college

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Rocky Mountain Case Free Essays

2009 ROCKY MOUNTAIN MUTUAL JOESPH MIROLA Rocky Mountain Mutual: Promoting Fun or Fitness? Date of Submission: 27th July 2009 Submitted to: Submitted by: Sanjay Kumar Gupta Rajiv Agarwal WAC instructor Roll: 20091034 To: Zachery Evans (Vice President) From: Joesph Mirola Date: 27 July 2009 Please find the detailed analysis of the fitness center in our organization with all the relevant data. Kindly inform me if some more information is required of the same. Regards Joseph Mirola ? CONTENTS: Sr. We will write a custom essay sample on Rocky Mountain Case or any similar topic only for you Order Now noTopicsPAGE NO: 1EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5 2SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS 6 3PROBLEM STATEMENT 6 4STATEMENT OF OPTIONS 7 5CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION 7 6EVALUATION OF OPTIONS 8 7RECOMMENDATIONS 10 8PLAN OF ACTION 10 LIST OF TABLES 9TABLE 16 ? EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Rocky Mountain Mutual is a growing insurance company which has recently opened a branch office in a remote area of Utah. The unique feature of this branch is its fitness center which boasts of facilities such as swimming pool and track for walking and running. According to company records users of fitness center have shown reduction in their medical expense but the cost of operating is too high and also less than 50% of employees are using it. Zachery Evans, the vice president of the operations wants to close it as it is an expensive affair and also utilizing lots of space. The analysis shows that the best option available is to continue using fitness center but reduce it space area by eliminating some of the unnecessary facilities and also using it as an discussion room in the off hours. No of words:140 SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS: Ours is a growing insurance company and has recently built a headquarter in remote area of Utah with a work strength of 250 employee, which features an fitness center in the campus which was started with an investment of 1 million dollar. Mr. Joe Mirola consider this fitness center as an added advantage to the company. Table: 1 Non usersUsers Absentism:12 days a yearAbsentism:6 days a year Medical cost Visiting center once or twice Visiting center thrice No of Emp. Cost/Emp. Total costNo of Emp. Cost/Emp. Total costNo of Emp. Cost/Emp. lTotal cost 2505001250006230018600251002500 As seen from the above table the medical expense of employee has reduced considerably with the use of fitness center however one more thing can be noticed that fitness center has not been used by its entire employee. The possible reason for this can be due to various facts such as: †¢Crowding during the peak hours †¢Employee need to come early to use the fitness center †¢Lack of awareness Zachary Evans the vice president of the operations believes that this center is too expensive to run and farther consuming up lot of the company valuable space. He is of the view that this center poses a great hindrance in the expansion of the company and wants it to be shut down unless of course he is convince that fitness center is worth the amount incurred in it PROBLEM STATEMENT The fitness center as shown by company records results in reduction of medical cost of an employee and also cause less absenteeism, but the cost incurred in maintenance is too high considering the fact that only 35% of the employee are making use of it, so problem lies with Mr. joe Mirola as to how to convince vice president Zachery Evans to continue fitness center or should he close it. STATEMENT OF OPTIONS 1. Fitness center should be continued and more and more employees should be encouraged to join it and some nominal fee must be charged. 2. Fitness center can be discontinued and space might be utilized for expansion of the company. 3. It can be used for commercial purpose by opening it for non-employees also and generate revenue. CRITERIA OF EVALUATION 1. Cost to company 2. Assets Utilization 3. Productivity 4. Competition 5. Risk factor EVALUATION OF OPTIONS: OPTION 1: OPTION 2: . Option3: RECOMMENDATION: From the above analysis it can be seen that option 3 gives us many advantage over the other and it looks to be the most viable option available. PLAN OF ACTION: 1. The first thing we must do is to run awareness program within the company. 2. Conduct an survey and take the feedback of the people as in what can be done to make center more useful 3. Proper management should be there so as avoid chaos during peak hours 4. Timings should be such that the everybody can easily make use of center 5. Proper marketing should be done so as to attract the non employees. 6. The fees charged must be nominal and give people value for money. Total words:1030 How to cite Rocky Mountain Case, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

The power of one free essay sample

Its nearly dark outside. We always have to wait until its dark. It Just isnt safe to travel in broad daylight. So I reluctantly got up from the mud and grass, which has been my bed for the night. We always sleep during the day, however if you tot three hours of sleep you were lucky. The group that I travel with have been reluctant in letting me join them. They believed that because I was a young girl I couldnt make it all the way. But Im determined to show them, Vive already made it out of Virginia unharmed and prepared for the Journey ahead of me. I was the only one that could make this journey to freedom in my family.My mother and older sister both died of a disease that is unknown to me, and my father was sold to a new master. We will write a custom essay sample on The power of one or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As my father was been taken away from me he told me to make it to Canada where I can live a safe live. And so that is what I must do, no matter what. As we walked I imagined what it was going to be like in this new place, but I was also scared at the same time. It was a crack of a twig that caught my attention and snapped me out of my daydream. It came from behind. I quietly told the person ahead of me of it, but he thought I was crazy. They claimed that we were in a farm owned by someone that was part of theUnderground Railroad. I told the person that I was going to hide until I was sure it was safe. He didnt argue, but I could tell from the look on his face that he was glad I was leaving. I tried to get some others to come with me, but the only one that listened was a mother with her child. We ran too nearby bush. I saw a light which looked like a group of men with their dogs they were gaining on the escaping slaves that I have been following Just moments ago. I knew the men saw them when one of them raised they gun. The man with the gun didnt hesitate to pull the trigger.It was too late for he slaves who have Just noticed them now. I starred at what was happening with eagerness, hoping that they would be saved, but no the four of them were all shot right In front of me. I was thankful that they were shot Instead of been beaten to death. I must have sat there for an hour before I was absolutely sure they were gone. After that I know what I must do. I have to get to Canada; I must make It for my father. So the mother and her child, who must have been about two, came with me. It felt kind of awkward being the leader at first, but after a while I started to enjoy It. I non saw a house up ahead. This must be where the farmer lives. So I went up to the door and knocked, but no one answered. I looked throw the window. I was horrified at the sight that I saw. Never had I seen so much blood before. The farmer was lying on the floor dead. I didnt dare go Inside the house for fear that someone might be In there. So I walked off with the women and child, whose names I didnt even know yet. It was nearly light when we made our way to a dam and held In the reeds. As I drifted off careful not to dare go Into a deep sleep, I planned my escape to freedom, a few en dead, but that wasnt going to stop me. He power of one By Josh-Waits right in front of me. I was thankful that they were shot instead of been beaten to gone. After that I know what I must do. I have to get to Canada; I must make it for my felt kind of awkward being the leader at first, but after a while I started to enjoy it. I the floor dead. I didnt dare go inside the house for fear that someone might be in It was nearly light when we made our way to a dam and hid in the reeds. As I drifted off careful not to dare go into a deep sleep, I planned my escape to freedom,

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Suicide prevention Professor Ramos Blog

Suicide prevention Depression causes many things from anxiety, to social regression, and most of all suicidal tendencies.   According to the American Foundation For Suicide Prevention, there are about 105 suicides per day. Some people have either attempted suicide or has had an ideation about it. Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one’s own death. Not only does it affect adults but children as well. 1 in 100,000 children age 10 to 14 dies by suicide each year. It’s a topic that you don’t really bring up to kids but it’s something that you should talk about with your children. It should be implemented in schools since children and teens are in school most of the day. Some stressors such as managing a workload, worrying about if the fit in and finding the balance with school and home can be stressful too. There are many life stressors that contribute to it such as mental illness, relationship problems, bullying, financial difficulties or a recent loss of someone clo se to you. There are many risk factors and we need to be more vigilant and know the warning signs for it such as aggressive behavior, talking about death, and social withdrawal. The sooner you see the warning signs the better in getting the help they need right away. Suicide is the tenth leading cause of deaths in the United States. Since the rates are rising we need to find ways we can prevent it. For example, having school-based awareness programs for kids and teenagers Such as letting them know they can speak to their teachers or their parents if they are feeling suicidal. Since school or home life can be stressful it would help to possibly have an emotional support service dog, An emotional support dog can be beneficial by providing mental and physical benefits They can come in throughout the day to provide comfort. In these programs they could learn how to create a safe environment for themselves, they would learn different kinds of coping skills and problem-solving skills. Another way would be to take medication for mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety or trauma-related disorders. There are currently about 22 antidepressant medications that are approved by the FDA that can help out. These could be a risk factor as well.   With the help of medication or talk therapy, it can be a great big help to some people. Talk therapy such as counseling, or a psychiatrist will give you a better understanding of your mental health, how to overcome your fears, how to improve your relationships with friends, family and yourself. With their help, you both can work together to manage your stress and improve the quality of your life. Lastly, we have suicide prevention hotlines that can help. Maybe you are not comfortable speaking to someone in person. Hotlines would help by phone or text there are many ways you can get help. It’s a safe place where they keep everything confidential and its free. You will be set up with a crisis worker who is trained to help people with emotional distress or if they are having a suicidal crisis. Maybe you are seeking help for a friend or you are worried about a friend they will help you and provide resources on what to do and how to get help quickly. These programs could help prevent suicides by bringing awareness to it. It can save lives too by educating children at a young age that’s it’s okay to speak to someone if they are feeling sad, lost, hopeless. Learning these skills at an early age would help them when they become an adult. Teachers should also be mandated to know the warning signs of their students if they are a suicidal risk. As a result, by having these programs kids will learn many ways to prevent suicides. They would also learn how to effectively manage stressors and what to do if they are having a problem. Mental illness can be another risk factor and can be helped by taking medication or talking to a medical professional. Another way would be to call a suicide hotline. That is why it’s important to speak to your children about this topic even though it can be overwhelming but we have to teach them at a young age so they can use these skills when they become adults. Works cited NIH â€Å"The national institute of mental health† https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/suicide.shtml CDC â€Å"center for disease control and prevention https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/suicide/prevention.html â€Å"Save suicide awareness voices of education† https://save.org/about-suicide/suicide-facts/ NAMI â€Å"National alliance on mental illness† https://www.nami.org/learn-more/mental-health-conditions/related-conditions/risk-of-suicide American Foundation For Suicide Prevention â€Å"Treatment† Treatment

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

32 Patriotic Independence Day Quotes

32 Patriotic Independence Day Quotes It was a historic moment when Thomas Jefferson, along with other members of the Continental Congress, drafted the Declaration of Independence. The Continental Congress declared the people of America independent from the British colonies. It was the moment of truth all Americans had waited for. If the effort of severing ties from the British succeeded, the leaders of the movement would be hailed as true American heroes. However, if the effort failed, the leaders would be guilty of treason and face death. It was the clever wording of the Declaration of Independence, followed by some smart strategies employed by the leaders that sparked the Independence movement. What followed was a relentless power struggle to gain absolute independence from the British monarchy. July 4, 1776, was the historic day when the Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence. Every year, Americans rejoice and celebrate Independence Day, or the 4th of July, with great fanfare. Amidst colorful parades, flag hoisting ceremonies, and barbecue parties, Americans remember the suffering their forefathers endured to win them precious freedom. Patriotic Quotes for Independence Day Erma Bombeck: You have to love a nation that celebrates its independence every July 4, not with a parade of guns, tanks, and soldiers who file by the White House in a show of strength and muscle, but with family picnics where kids throw Frisbees, the potato salad gets iffy, and the flies die from happiness. You may think you have overeaten, but it is patriotism.Adlai Stevenson: America is much more than a geographical fact. It is a political and moral fact the first community in which men set out in principle to institutionalize freedom, responsible government, and human equality.Elmer Davis: This nation will remain the land of the free only so long as it is the home of the brave.Joseph Addison: Let freedom never perish in your hands.Dwight D. Eisenhower: Freedom has its life in the hearts, the actions, the spirit of men and so it must be daily earned and refreshed - else like a flower cut from its life-giving roots, it will wither and die.George Bernard Shaw: Liberty is the breath of life to nations. Woodrow Wilson: The American Revolution was a beginning, not a consummation.Harry Emerson Fosdick: Liberty is always dangerous, but it is the safest thing we have.Ralph Waldo Emerson: For what avail the plough or sail, or land or life, if freedom fail?Daniel Webster: May the sun in his course visit no land more free, more happy, more lovely, than this our own country!John Dickinson: Then join hand in hand, brave Americans all!By uniting we stand, by dividing we fall.Hamilton Fish: If our country is worth dying for in time of war let us resolve that it is truly worth living for in time of peace.Benjamin Franklin: Where liberty dwells, there is my country.Thomas Paine: Those who expect to reap the blessings of freedom, must, like men, undergo the fatigue of supporting it.-  Thomas Paine: In a chariot of light from the region of the day,The Goddess of Liberty cameShe brought in her hand as a pledge of her love,The plant she named Liberty Tree.He that would make his own liberty  Ã¢â‚ ¬â€¹secure,  must guard even his enemy from opposition; for if he violates this duty he establishes a precedent that will reach himself. Franklin D. Roosevelt: The winds that blow through the wide sky in these mounts, the winds that sweep from Canada to Mexico, from the Pacific to the Atlantic - have always blown on free men.James G. Blaine: The United States is the only country with a known birthday.Paul Sweeney: How often we fail to realize our good fortune in living in a country where happiness is more than a lack of tragedy.Hubert H. Humphrey: We need an America with the wisdom of experience. But we must not let America grow old in spirit.George Santayana: A mans feet must be planted in his country, but his eyes should survey the world.Bill Vaughan: A real patriot is the fellow who gets a parking ticket and rejoices that the system works.John Quincy Adams: All men profess honesty as long as they can. To believe all men honest would be folly. To believe none so is something worse.Aurora Raigne: America, for me, has been the pursuit and catching of happiness.Gerald Stanley Lee: America is a tune. It must be sung tog ether. Lee Greenwood: And Im proud to be an American, where at least I know Im free. And I wont forget the men who died, who gave that right to me.John F. Kennedy: And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.John F. Kennedy: Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, to assure the survival and success of liberty.Oliver Wendell Holmes: One flag, one land, one heart, one hand, One Nation evermore!Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.: So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire.Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania!Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado!Let freedom ring from the curva ceous peaks of California!But not only that; let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia!Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee!Let freedom ring from every hill and every molehill of Mississippi.From every mountainside, let freedom ring. Abraham Lincoln, The  Gettysburg Address, 1863: Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Health Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Health Economics - Essay Example The studies conducted by Shadick and colleagues focused on assessing the cost effectiveness of the vaccination against the Lyme disease by developing a decision analytic model. However, the evidence gathered for such an experiment may be not being considered as robust as it may seem because the probabilities and costs used by Shadick and Colleagues were taken from the literature which may not be considered as entirely satisfactory as it may seem. Further, best estimates were used on the base case analyses whereas the ranges used in sensitivity analysis were considered as clinically plausible only. Further, the evidence for compliance and risk effects were taken from relatively newer and recent trials which may not have considered as entirely satisfactory and untested due to lack of time tested empirical proofs. Further the evidence for cost effectiveness and management of Lyme disease were taken from one study only and the dollar values were updated up to 1998 only which may not entirely be considered as entirely accurate and relevant. Based on the above, it may be easily inferred that the evidence may not entirely be considered as robust as it lacks in many areas which were conceptually not corrected/designed according to the relevant economic variables. Any health state rated between zero and one can be rated as death or equivalent and perfect health whereas anything below zero on visual analogue scale may be termed as worse than death therefore based on three given states of A, B, C at 0.1, 0.45, 0.8, we can assign a utility of death or equivalent because all the utilities are greater than zero but less than one. Therefore, the utility assigned to all three states are effectively representing one state because all three are less than one and greater than zero. Q#1(d) An incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) can be less than $40,000/- per quality adjusted year only if the persistence of vaccination efficacy is considered at three years. The traditional studies suggested that the cost effectiveness ratio, under two year time horizon of vaccination efficacy, the overall cost reach to $105,000/QALY. However, when this time horizon is stretched to three years, the incremental cost effectiveness ratio can reach up to $29,600/QALY. It is also important to note that Shadick & Colleagues took a radically larger efficacy period as in comparison to traditionally used. Q#1(e) With the increase in the vaccination cost by 100% i.e. from $150 to $300, the overall cost saving/QALY would decrease and the program would have moved up into the league table indicating smaller cost savings from the vaccination. The cost saving however is taken in terms of the costs averted while using the given vaccination. Q#2 Shadick and Colleagues considered a decision analytic model as one of the valid tools for making economic evaluation. Decision analytic tool is used when the intention of the researcher is to make justifiable and defendable decisions. Since, economics always involves a relative degree of abstraction therefore it sometimes becomes critical that such model for economic valuation is used which can provide researchers considerable degree of comfort while defending assessments made. (Arsham, 1994). Making comparison with earlier studies provide a peer reviewed evidence which can help researchers to take on the research